Dec. Of Ind. Vs. Constitution Essay, Research Paper
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union were drafted by a commission headed by John Dickinson on July 12, 1776. The settlements were still weary of strong cardinal authorities after the jobs they faced with the Parliament in England. Therefore, instead than allowing authorization to a cardinal authorities, the Articles of Confederation gave the bulk of power to the provinces.
While Congress had power over foreign personal businesss, war and peace, mintage, postal service, and Indian personal businesss, there were no tribunals to implement the declarations, Torahs, and revenue enhancements on the provinces. Alternatively, Congress relied on province requisitions, which provinces could easy disregard. ( Tindall/Shi 208 ) .
Important Acts of the Apostless required a? particular bulk? in which nine out of the 13 provinces had to O.K. of the act. This was used in steps taken with war, pacts, mintage, fundss, and the ground forces and naval forces. All amendments to the Articles required consentaneous confirmation.
Congress was besides weary of executive power. There was no caput of authorities, but instead a President of Congress, whom was re-elected annually.
Committees were made for about everything. Organization was hapless, and one adult male served on 80 commissions at one clip.
Congress besides set up three sections: Foreign Affairs, Finance, and War. These were much like the sections subsequently set up in the Constitution.
Due to the small power held by Congress, many jobs sprang up. States began coining their ain money and declining to merchandise with one another. A cardinal bank could non be set up because the needed amendment did non have a consentaneous ballot from the provinces. Debt in the provinces grew from $ 11 million to $ 28 million. Indian lands were trampled by white colonists.
Farmers became angry because harvest monetary values dropped and their land revenue enhancements were
increased in order to derive gross for war debts. Captain Daniel Shays, a war veteran and husbandman, led a rebellion of 1,200 husbandmans against the federal armory in Springfield in 1787. ( Tindall/Shi 216 ) They wanted a better pecuniary policy consisting of the right to utilize maize and wheat as difficult money. The husbandmans besides wanted a interruption from revenue enhancements until the depression lifted. The Rebels fought and four were killed. This little Riff convinced many politicians that the provinces were in demand of a different and better suited fundamental law.
Twenty-nine delegates from 12 provinces ( Rhode Island sent none ) met in Philadelphia on May 25 of 1787 at a convention for? the sole and express intent of revising the Articles of Confederation. ? ( Tindall/Shi 219 ) George Washington was the was the presiding officer.
The delegates decided upon a seperation of powers, giving certain rights to provinces and others to a cardinal authorities. One individual was besides to be named main executive, or president, but with limited powers in certain countries refering province authorities. This leader could blackball certain Acts of the Apostless of Congress, but could besides be overridden by a two-thirds bulk of Congress.
Three subdivisions were besides proposed: the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and the Executive Branch. The Legislative subdivision is made up of Congress, Senate, and the House of Representatives. The Judicial Branch contains the Supreme Court, and the Executive Branch is the Office of the President. These three subdivisions have a system of? cheques and balances? with no subdivision being more powerful than another.
After a battle to go through the Constitution, the last province agreed and on October 10 of 1788, it was passed. Benjamin Franklin stated, ? Our fundamental law is in existent operation. . . everything appears to assure that it will last. ? ( Tindall/Shi 230 )
Tindall/Shi. History: A Brief Editon, NY: New York. 1995