Public Speaking Essay, Research Paper
Audience Analysis & # 8211 ; Chapter 5
I ) Postmodern Paradoxes
I. A study in 1994 showed that merely 16 per centum of college freshers discussed political relations often.
two. Public speech production may be most valuable at merely the clip when it seems most hard.
three. The audience-analysis facet of rhetorical competency will be particularly helpful here because happening our ain voice frequently requires detecting what others think and want.
b. Dilemmas of Diversity
i. Dilemmas include:
1. difference versus similarity
2. hope vs. desperation
3. chance vs. subjugation.
two. Difference vs. Similarity
1. Percentage of pupils depicting their female parent as a full-time housewife declined from 31.4 ( in 1979 ) to 12.9 ( in 1994 ) .
2. 90 % of today & # 8217 ; s married twosomes met in a comparatively homogenous societal scenes.
3. The term & # 8220 ; stereotype: entered the social-science vocabulary during a period of clip when America & # 8217 ; s population was switching from little towns to big urban centres.
4. Today & # 8217 ; s public talkers will necessitate to attune themselves both to the addition in sociological diverseness and to the psychological impulse for similarity.
three. Hope V. Despair
1. eight out of 10 Americans are likely to react that they have to attained or expect to achieve the American Dream of freedom, equality, felicity, and fiscal security.
2. Public talkers in the 1990 & # 8217 ; s will desire to take note of the jumping temper of the populace.
four. Opportunity vs. Oppression
1. & # 8220 ; The American Dream & # 8221 ; brings to mind, people mention both desirable consequences and favourable personal fortunes.
2. Below the surface of America & # 8217 ; s middle-class aspirations and outlooks lurks concern that oppressive societal conditions may keep back personal advancement.
3. Since the 1970s international competition and reorganisation of the economic system have brought a diminution in the mean individual & # 8217 ; s occupation security and existent rewards.
4. All people like to believe that they have a bright hereafter ; but in an epoch where alteration and diverseness loom big, it besides may be appealing to believe that our failures are non our ain.
c. Public Talk: Merging personal and societal duty
1. Public talk gets us to the bosom of the post-modern quandary by assisting us work out & # 8212 ; for a peculiar issue at a peculiar clip & # 8212 ; the comparative functions of single and society.
2. in the 1930 & # 8217 ; s, Americans accepted that the range of depression-era jobs demanded that national bureaus be given freedom to pull off life in countries runing from electricity to public assistance.
3. Audience analysis is a cardinal to doing certain that public talk is worthwhile for talkers and helpful for hearers.
II ) The Active Audience
1. Peoples interpret what is traveling on around the, and so they work out a line of action appropriate to what they think.
2. Given an active audience, all we an realistically expect is that hearers will weigh our words, compare what we say against their existing positions, and so believe or move in ways appropriate for them.
3. The term image system sometimes is used to denominate the personal cognition of life held by hearers.
4. The image system may be divided into three sorts of ideas: beliefs, attitudes and values.
1. Two types of beliefs: verifiable beliefs-amount to factual cognition of the universe, and Primitive beliefs-do non supply specific factual information every bit much as they give us a position of how the universe works.
2. You should be concerned with the audience & # 8217 ; s shop of verifiable and crude beliefs that pertain to your address subject.
1. An attitude is a inclination to O.K. or disapprove of an object, event, or status.
2. Rokeach-attitudes are overall judgements of people & # 8217 ; s beliefs.
1. Peoples hold two types of values:
a. Terminal- Deals with conditions in which people live, such as freedom and universe peace.
b. Instrumental- Deals with human behavior such as bravery or hon
2. Members of your audience clasp values that pertain to your speech content-serve as beginnings of motive for hearers.
3. Inclinations of people to portion images make successful audience analysis possible for talkers.
III ) Learning about your audience
a. Demographic generalisations
1. Demographics are features of a group of people.
2. Name our attending to such characteristics of our hearers as sex, age, instruction, income and spiritual credo.
3. Useful to public talker because members of a peculiar group frequently have had certain experiences in common.
1. Age is related to values and life styles.
2. Generalizations about the age of you hearers can assist you fix a address.
three. Sexual activity
1. We live in an epoch in altering sex regulations & # 8211 ; gender based generalisations are hard and controversial.
2. Women put clip to take more of a nurturing-helping function.
1. Degree of instruction can function as a footing of some for anticipations of some on how they will react to addresss.
2. Use generalisations about educational attainment as footing of address readying.
1. Attitudes and values of Americans vary harmonizing to topographic point of abode
2. Dividing state into geographic parts besides supplies utile information about audiences.
six. Occupation and Income
1. Knowing the occupational position of hearers gives hints about their positions on life.
1. Census information shows that racial and cultural diverseness is on the rise in America.
2. Higher birth rate for minorities.
3. Economic state of affairs of minorities most important factor in doing minority attitudes to differ from those of Whites.
4. Can be utile for audience analysis.
1. Knowing the spiritual backgrounds of hearers is less utile for public speech production.
2. Religious human ecology allows merely really general and really probationary penetrations into your audience.
B. The address state of affairs
1. Time can act upon response of your address
2. Time of twenty-four hours can act upon you listening comprehension.
3. Time on calendar can hold particular importance on readers.
4. Agenda can hold particular importance
two. Topographic point
1. See physical scene of you classroom-large room, little room, and noise.
2. Pay attending to every item that might give you an advantage or set you in an uncomfortable place.
I. In analysing your audience with a questionnaire, the most of import tips are simpleness and brevity.
two. Needs of most public talkers will be met by a questionnaire incorporating three elements:
1. Demographic inquiries
2. Awareness-oriented inquiries
3. Attitude orientated inquiries.
three. Second type of inquiry taps the consciousness of respondents to the issues you will be raising.
four. Options for composing attitude inquiries include:
1. Open-ended inquiries
2. List of response picks
3. List of open-ended responses
v. Learning about your audience is important if you are to win involvement, attending, and support.
IV ) Credibility considerations
a. Cosmopolitan factors of credibleness
i. Aristotle identified three constituents of credibility
1. Exhibited good moral character
2. Showed good sense in discoursing the topic
3. Exhibited trust worthy methods.
two. Situational factors of creditability for conditions of a speaking state of affairs can act upon how the audience weights the credibility of the talker.
1. Sexual activity of the talker and hearer
2. Attitude of hearers
3. Similarity of talker and hearer can act upon whether a talker comes across creditable.
4. judgements of credibleness may differ harmonizing to the cultural background of the people listening to the address.