Science And Civilization Essay Research Paper Aristotle

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Science And Civilization Essay, Research Paper

Aristotle, Galileo, and Pasteur can be said to hold contributed significantly, each in his ain manner, to the development of The Scientific Method. Discuss.

What is the scientific method? In general, this method has three parts, which we might name ( 1 ) assemblage grounds, ( 2 ) doing a hypothesis, and ( 3 ) proving the hypothesis. As scientific methodological analysis is practiced, all three parts are used together at all phases, and hence no theory, nevertheless strictly tested, is of all time concluding, but remains at all times probationary, capable to new observation and continued proving by such observation.

Hellenic scientific discipline was built upon the foundations laid by Thales and Pythagoras. It reached its zenith in the plants of Aristotle and Archimedes. Aristotle ( 384-322 B.C. ) represents the first tradition, that of qualitative signifiers and teleology. He was, himself, a life scientist whose observations of marine beings were unsurpassed until the nineteenth century. Biology is basically teleological & # 8211 ; the parts of a life being are understood in footings of what they do in and for the being & # 8211 ; and Aristotle & # 8217 ; s biological plants provided the model for the scientific discipline until the clip of Charles Darwin. Aristotle was able to do a great trade of sense of ascertained nature by inquiring of any object or procedure: what is the stuff involved, what is its signifier and how did it acquire that signifier, and, most of import of all, what is its intent? What should be noted is that, for Aristotle, all activity that occurred spontaneously was natural. Hence, the proper agencies of probe was observation. Experiment, that is, changing natural conditions in order to throw visible radiation on the hidden belongingss and activities of objects, was unnatural and could non, hence, be expected to uncover the kernel of things. However, the constitution of the importance of sorting cognition and of observation every bit good as the debut of the deductive method of concluding can be taken as Aristotle s most important parts to the scientific method. Even after the rational revolutions of centuries to follow, Aristotelean constructs and thoughts remained embedded in Western thought.

The critical tradition of scientific discipline began with Copernicus in the 16th century. It finally led to the work of Galileo ( 1564-1642 ) , which criticised the really roots of the Aristotelian universe system. With the innovation of the telescope Galileo, in speedy sequence, announced that there were mountains on the Moon, satellites circling Jupiter, and musca volitanss upon the Sun. Furthermore, the Milky Way was composed of infinite stars whose being no 1 had suspected until Galileo saw them.

Galileo attacked the jobs of the Earth & # 8217 ; s rotary motion and its revolution by logical analysis. Bodies do non wing off the Earth because they a

rhenium non truly go arounding quickly, even though their velocity is high. In revolutions per minute, any organic structure on the Earth is traveling really easy and, hence, has small inclination to wing off. Bodies fall to the base of towers from which they are dropped because they portion with the tower the rotary motion of the Earth. Hence, organic structures already in gesture preserve that gesture when another gesture is added. So, Galileo deduced, a ball dropped from the top of a mast of a traveling ship would fall at the base of the mast. If the ball were allowed to travel on a frictionless horizontal plane, it would go on to travel everlastingly. Hence, Galileo concluded, the planets, one time set in round gesture, continue to travel in circles everlastingly. Therefore, Copernican orbits exist. Galileo ne’er acknowledged Kepler’s eclipsiss ; to make so would hold meant abandoning his solution to the Copernican job.

Galileo & # 8217 ; s originality as a scientist ballad in his method of enquiry. First he reduced jobs to a simple set of footings on the footing of mundane experience and common-sense logic. Then he analyzed and resolved them harmonizing to simple mathematical descriptions. The success with which he applied this technique to the analysis of gesture opened the manner for modern mathematical and experimental natural philosophies.

Louis Pasteur ( 1822-1895 ) was a Gallic chemist and microbiologist. His find that most infective diseases are caused by sources, known as the & # 8221 ; germ theory of disease & # 8221 ; , is one of the most of import in medical history.

Pasteur & # 8217 ; s phenomenal parts to microbiology and medicate can be summarized as follows. First, he championed alterations in infirmary patterns to minimise the spread of disease by bugs. Second, he discovered that weakened signifiers of a bug could be used as an immunisation against more deadly signifiers of the bug. Third, Pasteur found that hydrophobias was transmitted by agents so little they could non be seen under a microscope, therefore uncovering the universe of viruses. As a consequence he developed techniques to immunize Canis familiariss against hydrophobias, and to handle worlds bitten by rabid Canis familiariss. And 4th, Pasteur developed & # 8221 ; pasteurisation & # 8221 ; , a procedure by which harmful bugs in perishable nutrient merchandises are destroyed utilizing heat, without destructing the nutrient.

Pasteur & # 8217 ; s work is non merely the amount of his finds. It besides represents the revolution of scientific methodological analysis. Pasteur superimposed two incontestable regulations of modern research: the freedom of originative imaginativeness needfully subjected to strict experimentation. His work became the foundation for the scientific discipline of microbiology, and a basis of modern medical specialty.


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