The Manipulation Of Othello Essay, Research Paper
The Manipulation of Othello
William Shakespeare & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; Othello & # 8221 ; presents all of the elements of a great calamity, harmonizing to Aristotle & # 8217 ; s definition: & # 8220 ; A calamity is the imitation in dramatic signifier of an action that is serious and complete, with incidents eliciting commiseration and fright wherewith it effects a katharsis of such emotions & # 8221 ; ( Poetics 14 ) He besides adds, & # 8220 ; The linguistic communication used is enjoyable and throughout, appropriate to the state of affairs in which it is used. & # 8221 ; The cardinal characteristics of the Aristotelean original are manifested in General Othello & # 8217 ; s character. Although Othello is great, he is non perfect. He has a tragic defect, hubris ( inordinate pride and passion ) , and tragic flaw ( some mistake ) , which lead to his ruin. However, Othello & # 8217 ; s bad luck is non entirely deserved. His penalty exceeds the offense, maintaining him admirable in the playgoer & # 8217 ; s eyes. Before Othello & # 8217 ; s tragic defect consequences in his unfortunate decease, he has increased consciousness and gained self-knowledge or, as Aristotle describes it & # 8220 ; has experienced a discovery. & # 8221 ; ( Poetics 15 ) All of this produces a katharsis or emotional release at the terminal of the drama. A calamity, when good performed, does non go forth an audience in a province of depression but creates a shared, common experience. What causes Othello & # 8217 ; s ruin? Some critics claim that Othello & # 8217 ; s tragic defect is his green-eyed monster while others insist that green-eyed monster is non portion of his character, that the emotion takes over merely when Iago pushes him to the threshold of insanity. Evidence in the drama supports the impression of insanity. Othello doesn & # 8217 ; t demo himself to be covetous early in the drama. It is non until Othello is manipulated by Iago & # 8217 ; s adept prevarications that he is forced to face his green-eyed monster and misgiving. His love and trust of Iago service to turn out his credulousness, Jealousy and self-doubt toxicant his esthesias and artlessness, and the realisation of his blind trust leads to his sorrowful terminal.
As with most of Shakespeare & # 8217 ; s tragic heroes, Othello possesses all the virtuousnesss prescribed for the character type. He is of baronial birth ; he is self-controlled ; he is spiritual ; he has the regard of his work forces ; and he demonstrates first-class leading. His magnetic attraction is what draws Venetian senators and soldiers likewise and what captivates Desdemona. All of this supports the thought that he is non ( at the drama & # 8217 ; s opening ) a covetous, angered, or huffy adult male. He has converting self-esteem which he subsequently loses to the misrepresentation of Iago & # 8217 ; s evil gambit. It can be noted that Othello & # 8217 ; s character defect is his unsighted trust and naivet? . These character traits contribute to his misled ruin.
It would be inattentive, if non irresponsible, to overlook Iago & # 8217 ; s function in the drama. His hatred for Othello and Cassio drives his evil motivation through a twine of prevarications impacting the full dramatis personae. From the first act, the adversary is troubled:
I know my monetary value, I am deserving no worse a topographic point.
But he ( as loving his ain pride and intents )
Evades them with a bumbast circumstance
Horribly material & # 8217 ; 500 epithites of war,
[ And in decision, ]
Nonsuits my go-betweens ; for, & # 8220 ; Certes, & # 8221 ; says he,
& # 8220 ; I have already take my officer. & # 8221 ;
And what was he?
Forsooth, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Cassio, a Florentine
( A chap about damn & # 8217 ; d in a just married woman ) ,
That ne’er set a squadron in the field,
Nor the division of a conflict knows
( Othello. I.i.11-23 )
Iago ne’er reveals his dissatisfaction with the military agreement to Othello. Alternatively, he makes usage of Othello & # 8217 ; s artlessness and trust to fulfill his wicked terminal. He invariably boasts of his love for Othello and patronizes him on a regular basis throughout the drama.
At Iago & # 8217 ; s first effort to transfuse green-eyed monster in the trusting Othello, he is successful. Othello & # 8217 ; s concern at Iago & # 8217 ; s deductions entices him to larn more. Iago plays a verbal game with Othello to elicit intuition. This piques Othello & # 8217 ; s involvement and starts his head to inquire. Iago is successful at the point he proclaims,
O, beware, my Godhead, of green-eyed monster!
It is the green-ey & # 8217 ; vitamin D monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on. That cuckold lives in cloud nine
Who, certain of his destiny, loves non his wronger ;
But O, what damned proceedingss Tells he o & # 8217 ; er
Who dotes, yet uncertainties ; suspects, yet [ strongly ]
( Othello. III.iii.163-168 )
One of the major qualities that comes to mind when measuring Othello is his trustfulne
US Secret Service. He claims that Iago is a adult male of honestness and trust ; “To his conveyance I assign my wife” ( I.iii.286 ) . Othello has no ground to mistrust Iago at this point. Time after clip, Othello fails to see through Iago’s misrepresentations. Iago is a military adult male ; Othello is familiar covering with soldiers and work forces he trusts and, furthermore, Iago has a widespread repute for honestness. Othello needs to swear people ; it is his nature ; this is why he suffers anguish when he must take between the alleged honestness of Iago and the honestness of his married woman. Othello needs to swear his married woman. In despair, he cries:
If she be false, O, so heaven mocks itself!
I & # 8217 ; ll non believe & # 8216 ; T
( Othello. III.iii.278-79 )
Othello besides seems certain of Iago & # 8217 ; s friendly relationship when he clings to the one thing certain to him:
O brave Iago, honest and merely,
Thou hast such baronial sense
( Othello. V.i.31-32 )
The artlessness of Othello can be observed early in the drama. It is best evidenced ( Othello. I.iii. ) when Othello, supporting himself against Brabantio & # 8217 ; s ravings, says softly and merely that he is & # 8220 ; rude & # 8221 ; ( intending & # 8220 ; unpolished, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; simple, & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; unsophisticated & # 8221 ; ) in his address, and that he is non & # 8220 ; bless & # 8217 ; vitamin D with the soft phrase of peace & # 8221 ; ( 82 ) ; clearly, he does non seek to presume a airs that may look weighty or excessively impressive. It would be unnatural and deceitful for a adult male like Othello.
But Othello & # 8217 ; s artlessness is shattered, as is his self-esteem, by Iago. This is apparent ( Othello. III.iii. ) when he says that he thinks that Desdemona is honest and yet, he thinks she is non. He does non cognize what to believe any longer. This becomes painful for him. Once a maestro of self-knowledge, Othello is reduced, by Iago, to a shaking, incapacitated tool.
Othello & # 8217 ; s head and psyche are torn with irrational images of Desdemona & # 8217 ; s unfaithfulness and his ain unworthiness. Othello sees himself as an old adult male, an old cuckold, one who has treasured Desdemona blindly, beyond ground. His pride in himself and in Desdemona & # 8217 ; s love for him is destroyed. Othello is torn apart by self-loathing, reduced to the trapping of himself to a dungeoned frog. He feels he is cursed someway. All of this self-doubt leads to the corruptness of his close perfect character.
Othello, convinced his married woman is unfaithful, kills her out of what he claims responsibility instead than retaliation. The truth is brought to life when Montano, Gratiano, Emilia, and Iago enter. Othello insists that Iago knows the truth and for farther cogent evidence, speaks of the hankie. When Emilia attempts to talk out at the reference of this, she is killed by Iago, her ain hubby. Iago calls her a nefarious prostitute and a prevaricator. Knowing he has been deceived, Othello rushes toward Iago in an effort to kill him but is disarmed by Montano.
Lodovico vows to penalize Iago and wants Othello to return with him to Venice. Othello believes decease is excessively good for Iago but at the same clip belittles himself. Riddled with guilt and his autumn to Iago & # 8217 ; s obliquity, he takes his life and on his concluding breath cleaving to Desdemona, he asks for the drapes to be drawn, for Gratiano to administrate the Moor & # 8217 ; s estate, and for Iago to be badly punished. His consciousness, come tardily, is his enemy in life and he dies.
The transmutation of Othello is fascinating. How a adult male of wisdom and self-pride can be reduced to taking his life is worthy of analysis. Being guiltless and na? ve, Othello values the friendly relationship of Iago excessively in a heartfelt way and trusts blindly all of his misrepresentation. As Othello is easy poisoned by the prevarications of Iago, the perceptual experience of his dignity is tainted and he doubts his effectivity as a leader and lover. Having gained consciousness of his credulousness to the fraudulence of Iago, he disgracefully ridden with guilt, takes his ain life lending to the tragic stoping. There are many thoughts and readings of Othello & # 8217 ; s character. It would be bold to province that any one reading is wholly accurate in visible radiation of non cognizing Shakespeare & # 8217 ; s original purposes. There is a broad scope of essays and research available on the character defect of Othello. Regardless of the sentiments of his character, it is of import to look at the implicit in message of Shakespeare & # 8217 ; s Othello. Man can non populate by premise. His world must be grounded in truth and grounds.
Evans, Tobin, eds. 2nd edition. The Riverside Shakespeare. Boston. New
York. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1997.
Poeticss By Aristotle. Translated by S. H. Butcher. Online. Internet.
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