Tragic World Essay, Research Paper
The Greeks had a tragic universe position. I believe that a tragic universe position is a position of the universe in which there is small hope for any advancement ; everything grows, matures, and dies. The values taught by such a tragic universe are courage, destiny, humanitarianism, and concluding. There are many illustrations of the instruction of these values in the Greek literary plants. Examples of such plants are: the heroic poesy of Homer, The Odyssey and the Iliad ; plants of Sophocles, Oedipus Rex and Antigone ; plants of Euripides, Media and The Trojan Women ; and Plato & # 8217 ; s retelling of the test of Socrates, The Apology.
The heroic poesy of Homer had permanent impact Greek society. It came to be the footing of Greek faith, learning award and courage, every bit good as the elements of calamity. The Iliad Teachs that no 1 is invulnerable. The Iliad expresses the truth that & # 8220 ; & # 8216 ; wicked haughtiness & # 8217 ; and & # 8216 ; catastrophic wrath & # 8217 ; will do much agony and death. & # 8221 ; This is shown in The Iliad in the wrangle between Agamemnon an Achilles. The Odyssey besides teaches the same truth when Odysseus shouts his name to Polythemus. Dr. Owen Duncan said that The Iliad teaches another of import lessons is the subject that & # 8220 ; pride leads to catastrophe, yet non to be proud, is non to be Greek. & # 8221 ; This was illustrated when Achilles challenged Hector to a conflict to the decease, and Hector accepted although he knew he would be defeated.
Sophocles, one of the most famed dramatists in Grecian history, played a big function in transfusing the value of destiny into Grecian life. Sigmund Freud talked about & # 8220 ; the Oedipus complex & # 8221 ; in his book, The Interpretation of Dreams, stating:
Oedipus Rex is what is known as the calamity of fate. Its tragic consequence is said to lie in contrast between the supreme will of the Gods and the vain efforts of world to get away the immorality that threatens them. The lesson which & # 8230 ; the deeply moved witness should larn from this calamity is entry to the Godhead will and realisation of his ain powerlessness.
As Freud expressed, the trilogy of Sophocles ( Oedipus Rex, Antigone, and Oedipus at Colonus ) brought the facet of destiny or fate into light. Fate was apparent because although the actions and feelings of the characters were an built-in portion of the calamity, nil could alter one & # 8217 ; s destiny or destine. Lee A. Jacobus provinces, & # 8220 ; the chief struggle in Antigone centres on a differentiation between jurisprudence and justness, the struggle between a human jurisprudence, and a higher law. & # 8221 ; The rubric character battles within herself about the importance of staying by the Torahs of her uncle, the male monarch, or staying by her ain rules of truth. Through logical thinking, she decides that she must make what she knows in her bosom is right, even if it conflicts with the jurisprudence.
Euripides was the first to present ground into calamity, and besides introduced the importance of the single & # 8217 ; s ideas and feelings, or humanitarianism. & # 8220 ; Euripides subjected the jobs of human life to critical analysis and challenged human conventions & # 8230 ; The function of the Gods, adult females & # 8217 ; s struggles, the horrors of war, the power of passion, and the prevalence of human agony and failing were all carefully scrutinized in Euripides & # 8217 ; plays. & # 8221 ; Euripides shifted the focal point from Gods to worlds. In Medea, the rubric character is treated as an independent adult female, non as person & # 8217 ; s wi
iron or female parent, and is the first “fully developed” adult female character in all of Grecian play. In the drama, Medea’s hubby, Jason, marries King Creon’s girl in order to see the safety of the kids he has with Medea. The drama is about the torment, anguish, and forsaking that Medea feels. In this powerful drama, the feelings of a adult female are analyzed for the first clip. In the drama, Media provinces
Of all things which are populating and can organize a judgment/ We adult females are the most unfortunate animals. / & # 8230 ; What they say of us is that we have peaceable time/ Populating at place, while they do the combat in the war. / How incorrect they are! I would really much instead stand/ Three times in forepart of the conflict than bear one child. & # 8221 ;
Euripides showed in his dramas showed that ground merely gives & # 8220 ; lame opposition against these compelling, relentless, and devouring passions. The forces that destroy erupt from the volcanic nature of human beings. & # 8221 ; In one of his other more known plants, The Trojan Women, he continued to concentrate on the feelings of adult females, this clip with respects to war. He emphasized how the adult females felt holding to direct their hubbies and kids off to conflict. War was described & # 8220 ; as torment and non glorification, & # 8221 ; while the warrior was & # 8220 ; beastly and non noble. & # 8221 ; He went deep into the human psyche to finish his Hagiographas.
The importance of ground was most convincingly portrayed in the life of Socrates, peculiarly in his test, as recounted by Plato in The Apology. The Prophet at Delphi told Socrates that he was the wisest individual. He felt that the Oracle must be wrong, because he knew nil. Therefore he sought to happen person wiser than himself. The talked to others that were considered wise, but had no help in happening anyone wiser. His method of instruction was the duologue which consisted of a individual speaking with others, and inquiring inquiries. Through this procedure, Socrates thought, one would cognize him. He said that he would instead decease than give up doctrine stating:
Equally long as I have breath and power I will discontinue from doctrine and cheering you and puting Forth the truth to any of you whom I meet, stating as I am wont, & # 8220 ; My first-class friend, are you a citizen of Athens, a metropolis really great and really celebrated for wisdom and power of head: are you non ashamed of caring so much for the devising of money, and for repute and award? Will you non pass idea or attention on wisdom and truth and the perfecting of your psyche?
Doctrine and the chase of truth were more of import to Socrates than anything else. He risked and finally gave up his life for it
The Greek mentality on live was really tragic. As I have explained, a tragic universe elicits qualities of courage, destiny, humanitarianism, and logical thinking, all of which are illustrated in many plants of Greek literature. The plants of Homer shows the importance of courage, and the plants of Sophocles illustrates destiny. The plants of Euripides and the life of Socrates demonstrate both humanitarianism and logical thinking.
Marvin Perry et al. , Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics & A ; Society ( Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000 ) , 55. Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams
Lee A. Jacobus, The Bedford Introduction to Drama, Third Edition ( Boston: Bedford/St. Martin & # 8217 ; s, 1997 ) , 137