Women In Society Essay Research Paper Women

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Womans In Society Essay, Research Paper

Womans in all callings are endeavoring to derive equality in

the work force today, and female telecasting intelligence ground tackles

are definitely portion of the battle. The route to telecasting

intelligence anchoring is a bouldery one, where merely a few adult females

survive and many fail. Where advancement was one time thought

to hold been made, there aren & # 8217 ; t many females acquiring in front

in the universe of telecasting intelligence. Today, there is a really

decelerate, if any, addition in the Numberss of adult females who win.

There are many inquiries environing the topic of

adult females in telecasting intelligence, and I will try to reply

relevant 1s in this paper. How have the adult females that

really do it to the top and win as anchorwomen,

done it? What does it take to do it? Why do those few

endure it/enjoy it? Why has it been and still is

hard for adult females? What are the outlooks of adult females

in the field, as opposed to the outlooks of work forces?

I am interested in this subject because I one time aspired

to go a telecasting broadcaster. I still have

inspiration in me, but non rather every bit much due to the

negative and detering facets I have heard about in

categories and in the media. I am non certain that I could be

happy in a calling such as this, and I know there are great

troubles in & # 8220 ; doing it & # 8221 ; in this profession. I have

read about the unbelievable aspiration of successful females

in telecasting intelligence, and it seems like it takes a particular

sort of passion to desire to maintain up in the concern.

I kept my inquiries in head when assemblage research

stuff. While concentrating on the cardinal inquiries, I was able

to happen information that led me to organize replies to them.

Christine Craft & # 8217 ; s life told of her single

experience of being fired on the footing of her expressions and

her age. I realized from reading her narrative that she had a

& # 8220 ; nose for intelligence & # 8221 ; , a passion for stating it to the universe,

and a alone flicker that made her a good journalist, yet

those qualities weren & # 8217 ; t plenty in her instance. She took that

passion and flicker, filed a sexual favoritism instance and

won.

Difficult News: Womans in Broadcast Journalism had a few

chapters that were relevant to today, and I could pull on

some information for my paper. However, much of the

information was historical and non helpful to replying my

inquiries.

Battling for News concentrated chiefly on print

news media. There was stuff about the first adult females in

broadcast medium in the 1950 & # 8217 ; s and how they were hired and

fired.

Television News Anchors had really helpful information,

in that there were single narratives from anchorwomen

stating of their experiences. This provided narratives about

the adult females who have succeeded within the field & # 8211 ; why and

how. There was a unit of ammunition table treatment conducted by The

New Mother Jones magazine with telecasting newswomen Linda

Ellerbee, Marion Goldin, Ann Rubenstein, and Meredith

Vieira. This provided first-hand sentiments about what these

adult females see traveling on in the concern.

Womans in Television News was published in 1976, and

therefore, much of the information was outdated. However, I

was able to utilize some quotation marks from newswomen about what they

believe 1 must make to & # 8220 ; do it & # 8221 ; in broadcast news media.

I besides found some interesting quotation marks from a former frailty

president of ABC News sing adult females in the industry.

Waiting for Prime Time had valuable information about

Marlene Sander & # 8217 ; s experience and sentiments of other

anchorwomen and work forces. It covered possibilities for the

hereafter of adult females in broadcast medium.

Pamela Creedon & # 8217 ; s two books were helpful in that they

discussed subjects of sexual favoritism in broadcast

news media and included a chapter by Marlene Sanders,

titled & # 8220 ; The Face of the Network News is Male. & # 8221 ; Here she

attempted to undertake some jobs adult females in telecasting intelligence

face: what the jobs are, why they exist, and a spot

about what needs to be done to bring around these jobs.

Liesbet van Zoonen & # 8217 ; s book included a chapter titled

& # 8220 ; Media Production and the Encoding of Gender. & # 8221 ; It showed

how society positions adult females in the media. The outlooks of

female anchorwomen in portion stems from the overall position of

adult females on telecasting & # 8211 ; whether it be in a film, music

picture, or soap opera. This was relevant to my paper in

replying the inquiry of why there are certain

outlooks of adult females in telecasting intelligence.

The text edition, Gender, Race and Class in Media had a

few chapters relevant to my paper. Larry Gross wrote a

chapter titled, & # 8220 ; Out of the Mainstream: Sexual Minorities

and Mass Media. & # 8221 ; He discussed assorted stereotypes in our

society that lead to stereotypes in all countries of our

lives.

I found some of my beginnings from Oasis, and besides used

a twosome of magazine articles that were relevant to the

topic. I focused on the inquiries that I wanted to

reply and drew points from the stuff that were

relevant and provided significant grounds to reply my

inquiries. I found that sentiments and ideas of adult females

who had been through the concern were most helpful.

There was one large restriction I faced if I wanted to

turn out that adult females in telecasting intelligence were discriminated

upon based on sex and age. Womans have been fired from

their ground tackle places, and it has seemed that the grounds

were because of expressions or aging. But this is difficult to

prove. In August, Carol Schrader, a adult female ground tackle from

KETV-TV in Omaha, Nebraska was asked to go forth. She said

that it was because of her age, although her foremans didn & # 8217 ; T

state that was the ground, saying that she wasn & # 8217 ; t making her

occupation. She was replace by a immature, light-haired adult female. Besides, when

Marlene Sanders was asked to go forth ABC, alternatively of stating

point-blank that she was excessively old, her foreman told her she

had outgrown the profession. Lynn Sherr of ABC News was

besides fired, and she believed it was because of her

visual aspect, as no 1 told her why she lost her occupation. It

International Relations and Security Network & # 8217 ; t a proved fact that every instance of a adult female acquiring

fired from their professions were fired because of their

age.

The figure of adult females intelligence ground tackles is scarce. Merely a

few win, and the ground for this is because what is

expected of them is much greater than what is expected of

work forces. Womans must work twice every bit difficult, be twice as

beautiful, and travel supra and beyond their abilities. The

telecasting broadcast medium concern is dominated by males,

and, in bend, males have the bulk of the power.

Positive stairss have been taken by adult females, but they are

still far from being equal in the field. Progresss are non

being made rapidly.

Some work forces in the universe of telecasting intelligence say that

adult females do hold a tougher clip. Larry King had this to state:

I know that if I were & # 8220 ; Loretta & # 8221 ; King alternatively of

& # 8220 ; Larry & # 8221 ; King I would be nowhere near where I am

today. I would non hold had a national wireless

talk show in 1978, a national overseas telegram show of my

ain, and a national column if I had started out

being the & # 8220 ; incorrect & # 8221 ; gender ( Craft 1988, p. 6 ) .

Al Ittleson, former vice-president of ABC News, says

that physical visual aspect is of import for both male and

female broadcasters, but emphasizes the importance of a

adult female broadcaster & # 8217 ; s expressions:

Womans are supposed to be beautiful. Peoples

expect what a adult female is supposed to look

like, so when they come to television-I haven & # 8217 ; T

seen an unattractive adult female on telecasting yet & # 8230 ;

In fact, they & # 8217 ; rhenium hired, I would state, likely

more because of the manner they look and their image

than because of their background. A adult male with a

really strong news media background and a adult male who

has broken narratives & # 8230 ; can acquire off with a small

spot of dowdiness. Men aren & # 8217 ; Ts supposed to be

attractive. Womans have a tougher clip ( Gelfman

1976, p. 53 ) .

Our society pins importance upon adult females & # 8217 ; s expressions.

They are required to retain qualities of muliebrity, yet

must besides be professional. new wave Zoonen explains the

different outlooks of work forces and adult females in news media,

stating, & # 8220 ; one must presume & # 8216 ; muliebrity & # 8217 ; as a characteristic of

female journalists and & # 8216 ; maleness & # 8217 ; as a different

feature of male journalists & # 8221 ; ( van Zoonen 1994, P.

63 ) . The images that are instilled in society are

carried over into all facets of life, and are prevailing

in telecasting intelligence.

Merely as our society is dominated by white, in-between and

upper-middle category males, it is so in most professions.

The work forces are the foremans in telecasting intelligence, and this has

made it hard for adult females to derive prestigiousness. The work forces

topographic point outlooks upon the adult females, and penalize them if they

aren & # 8217 ; t precisely what they want.

One good illustration of a instance where a adult female intelligence ground tackle

was fired on the footing of her expressions is Christine Craft.

Trade was discriminated against because of her sex,

visual aspect, and age. She was fired from KMBC in Kansas

City and told, & # 8220 ; You don & # 8217 ; t conceal your intelligence to do

cats look smarter & # 8221 ; ( Craft 1988, p. 66 ) . Along with this,

she was fired because she was & # 8220 ; excessively old, excessively unattractive,

and non sufficiently regardful to work forces & # 8221 ; ( Craft 1988, P.

66 ) . Because her foreman straight told her these things, she

felt she had been sexually discriminated against. She won

two tribunal instances, winning a sum of $ 600,000 in amendss.

Craft & # 8217 ; s instance opened the eyes of many anchorwomen, as

good as others in the media and elsewhere. Here is a

talented, competent broadcast journalist who was below the belt

treated and took a base. She remarks on her experience,

& # 8220 ; The work forces could be balding, jowly, bespectacled, even flesh out

and encased in double-knit, yet the adult females had to be

flawless. Furthermore, there was the outlook that I

should feign non to cognize certain facts merely because I

was a adult female & # 8221 ; ( Craft 1988, p. 10 ) .

What is upseting about Craft & # 8217 ; s instance is that it is

so blatantly obvious that she lost her occupation on the footing of

being a adult female, being excessively old, and non being reasonably plenty.

At the clip, out of all the ground tackles in the state who

were over 40, work forces made up 97 per centum of that,

with three per centum being adult females who did non look their age.

Marlene Sanders writes that what is seen in Craft & # 8217 ; s instance

is & # 8220 ; that furrows are & # 8217 ; flavoring & # 8217 ; in a adult male but

& # 8216 ; disqualification & # 8217 ; in a adult female, & # 8221 ; and that while this may

non be sexual favoritism, & # 8220 ; it is a sad statement about

how adult females are viewed in our society & # 8221 ; ( Sanders and Rock

1988, p. 148 ) .

The universe of telecasting intelligence is an unstable one,

where adult females take opportunities, non cognizing if or how long they

can boom in the concern. Marlene Sanders puts it

obviously, & # 8220 ; The message is clear ; we can all be replaced.

There are no warrants of length of service, and no obvious

finish where intelligence professionals can interpret their

experience and knowledge into new and hearty callings & # 8221 ;

( Sanders and Rock 1988, p. 205 ) .

Before she took the occupation at KMBC in Kansas City, Craft

was working at a smaller station in Santa Barbara, where

she had a positive experience. She says, & # 8220 ; I was content

to be in a topographic point where the accent was on acquiring the

narratives and acquiring them right. Merely one time did direction

reference my visual aspect, and that was to state me to draw my

hair back a spot & # 8221 ; ( Craft 1988, p. 28 ) .

Trade was attracted to the Kansas City station in a

larger market. However, she made clear before taking the

occupation that first and first she did non desire to alter her

visual aspect. They promised her it wouldn & # 8217 ; t go on, yet

within the first hebdomad they had a beauty adviser stacking

the make-up onto her face.

Sexual favoritism is apparent in telecasting intelligence.

KMBC practically begged Christine Craft to come to their

station. & # 8220 ; Womans are rewarded more than work forces for altering

intelligence stores frequently or for traveling to larger markets more

because of their gender than because of their journalistic

makings & # 8221 ; ( Creedon: Smith, Fredin, Ferguson Nardone

1993, p. 174 ) .

During the first test, a former intelligence manufacturer at

KMBC, Sherry Chastain, testified, stating that her foremans

& # 8220 ; instructed her to supervise the visual aspect of female

ground tackles and newsmans, but ne’er males & # 8230 ; the male

opposite number was bald with a bad toupee and thick spectacless,

yet nil was of all time mentioned about supervising his

visual aspect & # 8221 ; ( Craft 1988, p. 118 ) .

Diane Sawyer says that equal wage for equal work is a

more serious issue than aging on the air. The ground this

is such a hard challenge is because the figure of

adult females on a intelligence staff, every bit good as their ages can be easy

established. However, wages tend to be confidential,

and the dollar value of experience and other

makings are difficult to find. Therefore, while it

is possible that aging may non be a major issue for adult females

broadcasters ten old ages from now, equal wage for equal work

will most likely linger on ( Hosley and Yamada 1987, P.

152-154 ) .

Some of the incrimination for all anchorwomen & # 8217 ; s jobs were

voiced by misanthropic male telecasting executives in the

1980 & # 8217 ; s. Jon Katz, former executive manager of CBS

Morning News, Tells of another executive who had a manner of

make up one’s minding which adult females to interview for ground tackle places.

He would look at their tapes in the VCR for eight seconds

and he would inquire himself, & # 8220 ; Do I desire to sleep together them? & # 8221 ; This

was his footing in make up one’s minding who to engage ( Katz 1995, p. 158 ) .

Catherine Crier experienced touchs of sexism at CNN.

A former attorney and justice, she was criticized for being

merely another reasonably face come ining the field of

broadcast medium. She had no old experience in

news media, yet her political experience provided the

accomplishments and cognition necessary to win. She says,

& # 8220 ; Journalists couched their reaction in footings of experience

and background, but those same journalists have failed to

voice similar unfavorable judgments of Pierre Salinger of Bill

Moyers, two work forces who jumped from political relations into broadcast

intelligence & # 8221 ; ( Fensch: McHargue 1993, p. 182 ) . Crier says that

the additions of adult females in telecasting intelligence is being made really

easy, and that & # 8220 ; it is still a defeat for most

adult females & # 8221 ; ( Fensch: McHargue 1993, p. 184 ) .

Jane Pauley is an exclusion to the negativeness adult females

broadcasters frequently receive. The public loves her. & # 8220 ; It is

exactly because Pauley is so earthy and

easy-going that Americans loved waking up with her & # 8221 ;

( Fensch: Holloway 1993, p. 249 ) . She possesses the

feminine quality that is appealing to the mass audience.

She was replaced by Deborah Norville, a younger, blonder

adult female on the Today show, and viewing audiences were disquieted to see her

travel. Now she is a success on NBC Nightly News.

There are certain qualities a adult female needs to hold in

order to be able to last in telecasting intelligence. Ann

Rubenstein of NBC Nightly News says, & # 8220 ; You must truly

decide for yourself what you & # 8217 ; re traveling to make and non make.

And what monetary value you are willing to pay for whatever they & # 8217 ; rhenium

offering & # 8221 ; ( Fensch: Orenstein 1993, p. 128 ) .

Hard work and deathless aspiration are of import

qualities of anchorwomen. Mary Alice Williams, of CNN and

NBC, gave it her all the first twenty-four hours she went to work for

NBC, & # 8220 ; looking on camera, as an ground tackle of the eventide

intelligence interruptions, and by the terminal of her first three hebdomads she

had anchored every web intelligence show & # 8221 ; ( Fensch: White 1993,

p. 289 ) .

A passion for stating the intelligence is of import, and is

one ground why the successful adult females stay in the field.

Diane Sawyer explains,

& # 8220 ; I truly love what you learn every twenty-four hours in the

concern. I love the breathless manner we walk

into people & # 8217 ; s lives and inquire them anything we

privation and so go forth. For a minute you have

available to you the whole existence of a individual & # 8217 ; s

life-the hurting and the agony and the joy and

the battle. You can larn from it and take

it with you and so come back the following twenty-four hours

with person else. That & # 8217 ; s what I like to make & # 8221 ;

( Fensch: Zoglin 1993, p. 278 ) .

Sawyer & # 8217 ; s ceaseless aspiration carried her from intelligence

letter writer to web star. While working for CBS

Morning News and covering the dialogues to liberate Iran

sureties, she & # 8220 ; would kip all dark on two secretarial

chairs so I could acquire up at 4 ante meridiem, stalk the halls and

see what I could acquire & # 8221 ; ( Fensch: Zoglin 1993, p. 284 ) .

The will to digest any obstructions and believe in

themselves keeps the few successful anchorwomen traveling.

Sally Quinn, CBS anchorwoman says

You & # 8217 ; ve got to hold assurance. If I didn & # 8217 ; T

hold an tremendous sum of assurance, I

would hold been destroyed by this whole

experience & # 8230 ; You can & # 8217 ; t larn to be a perfect

anchorwoman in one twenty-four hours, and I knew that I wasn & # 8217 ; T

traveling to be perfect and that people were merely

traveling to crucify me because I wasn & # 8217 ; t perfect & # 8221 ;

( Gelfman 1976, p. 75 ) .

Michael Gartner, NBC News president, explains what is

of import in telecasting intelligence grounding. & # 8220 ; You have to hold

a particular combination of individual to be the focal point of a

successful show. You have to be a good journalist, and

you have to be able to present the message-which a print

individual doesn & # 8217 ; Ts have to do-in individual, in person & # 8217 ; s house & # 8221 ;

( Fensch: Zoglin 1993, p. 281 ) .

Barbara Walters is an exclusion to the regulation that

older adult females do non win in telecasting intelligence. She is a

successful telecasting newswoman who is good over the age

of 40. Even she had to take the difficult route to do it to

the top, get downing out as a secretary at a little

advertisement bureau, working in public dealingss and so

in public personal businesss for CBS. Walters recognizes the tough

times adult females in telecasting intelligence face. She says

You have to work harder. It & # 8217 ; s been said before,

but it & # 8217 ; s true. You are taken less earnestly and

you are really frequently scorned by your ain colleagues

& # 8230 ; it & # 8217 ; s a tougher occupation for a adult female because a adult female

has to be terribly good. She truly does. A adult male

can be much more excused & # 8221 ; ( Gelfman 1976, p. 88 ) .

Womans are non lifting to the top rapidly in telecasting

intelligence, although there is slow betterment, and anchorpersons

say they are all right with the thought of adult females at the top.

Walter Cronkite says of a adult female ground tackle in the hereafter,

& # 8220 ; Fine, why non? I think it likely & # 8230 ; I think by the clip

the following alteration comes, the following coevals of ground tackle

people, I would believe that the barrier would be down and

that adult females would hold every bit good a opportunity as work forces & # 8221 ; ( Drum sanders

and Rock 1988, p. 198 ) .

Yet there are still barriers standing in the manner of

adult females endeavoring to do it to the top. They begin at

low-level occupations, such as research workers and logistics individuals

and hope to take the right waies to acquire to the top of the

ladder. Sanders writes, & # 8220 ; For old ages there were few adult females

above the degree of research worker. While that has changed,

the sum of defeat for those who do non travel in front

has driven many people out of the concern wholly & # 8221 ;

( Sanders and Rock 1988, p. 198-199 ) .

Lesley Stahl of CBS News points out that anchorwomen

are most frequently workaholics, with a ceaseless thrust to

make their occupation. She says

It & # 8217 ; s one ground we do win in this concern.

We merely give it everything & # 8230 ; Maybe it & # 8217 ; s because

our sort of personalities are attracted to this

industry, compulsive, deadline-oriented people

who keep forcing ourselves to see how much work

we can make. We love work & # 8230 ; It & # 8217 ; s non merely a symptom

in the early phase, it goes on & # 8221 ; ( Sanders and Rock

1988, p. 81 ) .

Society & # 8217 ; s outlooks of female intelligence ground tackles is really

much like that of any adult female in a powerful and successful

calling. While the adult females must portray a glamourous, yet

friendly image, outlooks of work forces in the concern are

non near every bit high. Jon Katz says in his article

The work forces who anchor today expression, frock, and act

about exactly the same manner they did 50 old ages

ago. They merely have to reflect a individual trait

to succeed-gravitas. They wouldn & # 8217 ; t dream of

being confidant, glamourous, or coy. Nor would

anyone expect that of them & # 8221 ; ( Katz 1995, p. 162 ) .

Katz goes on to state that work forces who make it in the

concern normally ne’er fail. He says of anchorpersons, & # 8220 ; Old

ground tackles ne’er fade off. And they can & # 8217 ; t be killed by

person means & # 8221 ; ( Katz 1995, p. 164 ) .

Sadly, forward motions aren & # 8217 ; t evident today by

adult females in telecasting intelligence. Forty old ages ago, a female

deriving the anchor place on the eventide intelligence was a spring

frontward. Today & # 8220 ; it feels more like a measure rearward, an

effort to stuff complete, modern-day adult females into an

ill-fitting straitjacket & # 8221 ; ( Katz 1995, p. 164 ) .

It is evident that adult females intelligence ground tackles face many more

battles than work forces in the field. It takes a unique

single to contend through those battles and strive for

what they want most: to relay intelligence throughout the universe.

Equality with work forces is far from being reached, but a few

females have stood their land and hopefully made a

difference for others that follow. If people open their

eyes and recognize there are plentifulness of adult females who are merely

as, if non more, competent than work forces at keeping an ground tackle

place, adult females could derive regard within the field. For

now, the few adult females who find success and are willing to

endure the adversities that come along will probably last

in the concern, at least until age hinders their physical

visual aspect.

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